Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its receptors are associated with a number of neuropathological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Although the precise pathophysiology of schizophrenia remains unknown, the dopaminergic hypothesis of the illness assumes that the illness results from excessive activity at dopamine synapses in the brain. Because, at present, the diagnosis of schizophrenia relies on descriptive behavioral and symptomatic information, a peripheral measurable marker may enable a simpler, more rapid, and more accurate diagnosis and monitoring. In recent years, human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been found to express several dopamine receptors (D3, D4, and D5) by using molecular biology techniques and binding assays. It has been suggested that these dopamine receptors found on lymphocytes may reflect receptors found in the brain. Here we demonstrate a correlation between the D3 dopamine receptor on lymphocytes and schizophrenia and show a significant elevation of at least 2-fold in the mRNA level of the D3, but not of the D4, dopamine receptor in schizophrenic patients. This increase is not affected by different antipsychotic drug treatments (typical or atypical). Moreover, nonmedicated patients exhibit the same pattern, indicating that this change is not a result of medical treatment. We propose the D3 receptor mRNA on blood lymphocytes as a marker for identification and followup of schizophrenia.
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - 16 Jan 2001|