In this present study we evaluated the ability of a recently synthesized melatonin antagonist, N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-5-methoxytryptamine (ML-23), to antagonize the effects of afternoon injections of melatonin on the reproductive and thyroid axes in the female Syrian hamster. Thirty-six animals were divided into four groups and treated daily for 13 weeks with an afternoon injection of melatonin (25 μg/injection) or saline diluent. ML-23 was given via the drinking water to both melatonin- and saline-treated groups. The experiment was continued until 78% of melatonin-treated animals exhibited acyclicity. The results show that ML-23 partially reversed the effects of melatonin on pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but was without effect on the decreased pituitary and plasma prolactin concentrations induced by melatonin treatment. Furthermore, ML-23 antagonized the effects of melatonin on plasma thyroxine levels and significantly increased plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and the free triiodothyronine index when used in combination with melatonin. The decrease in ovarian weight and plasma estradiol, but not progesterone, obtained with melatonin treatment also was reversed by ML-23. Our data suggest that ML-23 prevents the effects of melatonin treatment on ovarian weight, pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone levels, plasma estradiol, and thyroxine concentrations in the female Syrian hamster. Since ML-23 did not prevent the effects of melatonin on pituitary weight, plasma luteinizing hormone and prolactin, and pituitary prolactin concentrations, the actions of ML-23 may involve only peripheral sites of action of melatonin. Alternatively, the dose of ML-23 may not have been optimal to prevent all of the central effects of the indoleamine.