A New Pulsed Flow Modulation GC × GC–MS with Cold EI System and Its Application for Jet Fuel Analysis

Uri Keshet, Alexander B. Fialkov, Tal Alon, Aviv Amirav*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


We designed and operated a new system of pulsed flow modulation (PFM) two dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC × GC) mass spectrometry (MS). This system is based on the combination of PFM–GC × GC with a quadrupole mass spectrometer of GC–MS via a supersonic molecular beams interface and its fly-through Cold EI ion source and applied this system for the analysis of JP8 jet fuel. PFM is a simple GC × GC modulator that does not consume cryogenic gases while providing tunable second GC × GC column injection time for enabling the use of quadrupole based mass spectrometry regardless its limited scanning speed. We analyzed JP8 jet fuel with our new PFM–GC × GC–MS with Cold EI system and found that as the second dimension GC elution time is increased the observed molecular ion mass is reduced. This unique observation that helped in improved sample compounds identification under co-elution conditions was enabled via having abundant molecular ions in Cold EI for all the fuel compounds. We named this type of analysis as PFM–GC × GC × MS. We found and discuss in this paper that PFM–GC × GC–MS with Cold EI combines improved separation of GC × GC with Cold EI benefits of tailing-free ultra-fast ion source response time and enhanced molecular ions and mass spectral isomer and isotope information for the provision of increased sample identification information.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)741-754
Number of pages14
Issue number11-12
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2016


FundersFunder number
Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities393/11, 356/15
Israel Science Foundation
Ministry of Science and Technology, Israel


    • Cold EI
    • GC × GC
    • GC × GC × MS
    • GC–MS
    • Pulsed flow modulation
    • Supersonic molecular beams


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