A multi-sensor wearable system for the assessment of diseased gait in real-world conditions

for the Mobilise-D consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Accurately assessing people’s gait, especially in real-world conditions and in case of impaired mobility, is still a challenge due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors resulting in gait complexity. To improve the estimation of gait-related digital mobility outcomes (DMOs) in real-world scenarios, this study presents a wearable multi-sensor system (INDIP), integrating complementary sensing approaches (two plantar pressure insoles, three inertial units and two distance sensors). Methods: The INDIP technical validity was assessed against stereophotogrammetry during a laboratory experimental protocol comprising structured tests (including continuous curvilinear and rectilinear walking and steps) and a simulation of daily-life activities (including intermittent gait and short walking bouts). To evaluate its performance on various gait patterns, data were collected on 128 participants from seven cohorts: healthy young and older adults, patients with Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and proximal femur fracture. Moreover, INDIP usability was evaluated by recording 2.5-h of real-world unsupervised activity. Results and discussion: Excellent absolute agreement (ICC >0.95) and very limited mean absolute errors were observed for all cohorts and digital mobility outcomes (cadence ≤0.61 steps/min, stride length ≤0.02 m, walking speed ≤0.02 m/s) in the structured tests. Larger, but limited, errors were observed during the daily-life simulation (cadence 2.72–4.87 steps/min, stride length 0.04–0.06 m, walking speed 0.03–0.05 m/s). Neither major technical nor usability issues were declared during the 2.5-h acquisitions. Therefore, the INDIP system can be considered a valid and feasible solution to collect reference data for analyzing gait in real-world conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1143248
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • IMU
  • distance sensors
  • ecological conditions
  • gait analysis
  • pressure insoles
  • spatial-temporal gait parameters
  • wearable sensors


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