We hypothesized that the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D) in patients with mildly symptomatic heart failure (HF) is more favorable than the commonly referenced figure of 70%. This study involves the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT) study population in which paired echocardiograms from baseline and 1-year follow-up were available in 621 implantable cardioverter-defibrillator-treated patients and 749 patients treated with CRT-D. We prespecified CRT-D responders as the patients who at 1-year follow-up had a reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) that corresponded to the top (best) quintile of LVESV reduction in the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator-treated patients, that is, a <17% reduction in LVESV. Using this metric, 88% of patients treated with CRT-D and 91% of the patients treated with CRT-D with left bundle branch block (LBBB) were identified as cardiac resynchronization therapy responders. Landmark multivariate Cox model analyses revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.038) involving LVESV (responders vs nonresponders) and LBBB (present vs not present) in risk reduction for HF or death. The interaction finding indicates that cardiac resynchronization therapy responders with LBBB have a significantly lower risk for HF or death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.24) than patients without LBBB (HR 0.62). In the patients treated with CRT-D, LVESV response was associated with reduction in the risk of death (HR 0.20, p <0.001). An increasing percent reduction in LVESV was associated with progressively lower rates of HF or death, a finding consistent with a dose-response relation. In conclusion, approximately 90% of CRT-D-treated patients in MADIT-CRT had a significant and meaningful reduction in LVESV, and these LVESV responders had reduced rates of cardiac events during long-term follow-up.