A consensus guide to using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in posture and gait research

Jasmine C. Menant*, Inbal Maidan, Lisa Alcock, Emad Al-Yahya, Antonio Cerasa, David J. Clark, Eling de Bruin, Sarah Fraser, Vera Gramigna, Dennis Hamacher, Fabian Herold, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Shannon Lim, Annette Pantall, Paulo Pelicioni, Sue Peters, Andrea L. Rosso, Rebecca St George, Samuel StuartRoberta Vasta, Rodrigo Vitorio, Anat Mirelman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


Background: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is increasingly used in the field of posture and gait to investigate patterns of cortical brain activation while people move freely. fNIRS methods, analysis and reporting of data vary greatly across studies which in turn can limit the replication of research, interpretation of findings and comparison across works. Research question and methods: Considering these issues, we propose a set of practical recommendations for the conduct and reporting of fNIRS studies in posture and gait, acknowledging specific challenges related to clinical groups with posture and gait disorders. Results: Our paper is organized around three main sections: 1) hardware set up and study protocols, 2) artefact removal and data processing and, 3) outcome measures, validity and reliability; it is supplemented with a detailed checklist. Significance: This paper was written by a core group of members of the International Society for Posture and Gait Research and posture and gait researchers, all experienced in fNIRS research, with the intent of assisting the research community to lead innovative and impactful fNIRS studies in the field of posture and gait, whilst ensuring standardization of research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-265
Number of pages12
JournalGait and Posture
StatePublished - Oct 2020


  • Balance
  • Functional-Near Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Gait
  • Guidelines: cerebral hemodynamics
  • Posture


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