To compare the efficacy of a directive visual motor intervention (DVMI) versus a nondirective supportive intervention (NDSI) on psychological- adjustment, self-esteem, and visuomotor-integration (VMI) skills in mainstream elementary school and kindergarten children. A total of 168 poor VMI children of low socioeconomic status attending regular kindergarten or first grade were randomly allocated to receive 12 weeks of DVMI, NDSI, or no treatment. Psychological adjustment, self-esteem, and VMI skills were evaluated before and after the intervention period. In the kindergarten subset, NDSI significantly improved VMI skills compared to DVMI and no treatment. In the first-graders, NDSI and DVMI yielded a similar, significant, improvement in VMI compared to no treatment. There were no significant differences among the NDSI, DVMI, and control groups in improvement in psychological-adjustment or self-esteem. This study, conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population, suggests that kindergarten children with poor VMI might benefit from the positive and meaningful relationships inherent in NDSI.
- Psychological adjustment
- Visuomotor integration skills