A common benign intronic deletion masking a pathogenic deep intronic PCCB variant - genome sequencing and RNA studies to the rescue

Alina Kurolap, Dalit Barel, Nava Shaul Lotan, Isaiah Wexler, Chofit Chai Gadot, Adi Mory, Ortal Barel, Shlomo Almashanu, Hagit Baris Feldman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Propionic acidemia (PA) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by variants in PCCA or PCCB, both sub-units of the propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) enzyme. PCC is required for the catabolism of certain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids. In its absence, the accumulated toxic metabolites cause metabolic acidosis, neurologic symptoms, multi-organ dysfunction and possible death. The clinical presentation of PA is highly variable, with typical onset in the neonatal or early infantile period. We encountered two families, whose children were diagnosed with PA. Exome sequencing (ES) failed to identify a pathogenic variant, and we proceeded with genome sequencing (GS), demonstrating homozygosity to a deep intronic PCCB variant. RNA analysis established that this variant creates a pseudoexon with a premature stop codon. The parents are variant carriers, though three of them display pseudo-homozygosity due to a common large benign intronic deletion on the second allele. The parental presumed homozygosity merits special attention, as it masked the causative variant at first, which was resolved only by RNA studies. Arriving at a rapid diagnosis, whether biochemical or genetic, can be crucial in directing lifesaving care, concluding the diagnostic odyssey, and allowing the family prenatal testing in subsequent pregnancies. This study demonstrates the power of integrative genetic studies in reaching a diagnosis, utilizing GS and RNA analysis to overcome ES limitations and define pathogenicity. Importantly, it highlights that intronic deletions should be taken into consideration when analyzing genomic data, so that pseudo-homozygosity would not be misinterpreted as true homozygosity, and pathogenic variants will not be mislabeled as benign.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107702
JournalMolecular Genetics and Metabolism
Volume140
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Keywords

  • Deep intronic variant
  • Genome sequencing
  • PCCB
  • Propionic acidemia
  • Propionic aciduria

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