Background: COVID-19 is an ongoing global crisis, with a multitude of factors that affect mental health worldwide. We explored potential predictors for the emergence and maintenance of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in the general population in Israel. Methods: Across the span of 16 months, 2478 people completed a repeated self-report survey which inquired psychiatric symptoms and pandemic related stress factors (PRSF). We applied mixed-effects models to assess how each stressor contributes to depression, anxiety and PTSS at each time point, and longitudinally assessed participants who completed at least two consecutive surveys (n = 400). We weighted our sample to increase representativeness of the population. Results: Fatigue was the strongest predictor for depression, anxiety and PTSS at all time points, and predicted deterioration overtime. Financial concerns associated with depression and anxiety at all time points, and with their deterioration overtime. Health related concerns were uniquely associated with anxiety and PTSS at all time points and their deterioration, but not with depression. Improvement in sense of protection overtime associated with decrease in depression and anxiety. Hesitancy towards vaccination was associated to higher financial concerns and lower sense of protection by the authorities. Conclusions: Our findings accentuate the multitude of risk factors for psychiatric morbidity during COVID-19, and the centrality of fatigue in determining mental health outcomes.
- Posttraumatic stress