4DCT in Discordant Parathyroid Adenoma Scans: Case Series and Meta-Analysis

Anton Warshavsky*, Raz Rubin, Narin Nard Carmel-Neidermann, Adi Brenner, Genady Shendler, Liyona Kampel, Elena Izkhakov, Nidal Muhanna, Gilad Horowitz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of four-dimensional computerized-tomography (4DCT) for localizing parathyroid adenomas (PTAs) in cases with discordant or non-localizing ultrasonography (US) and Technetium-99 sestamibi (MIBI) scans. Data Sources: Retrospective case series and systematic review. Review Methods: A case series and meta-analysis of patients diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism and discordant US and MIBI scans who underwent 4DCT prior to surgery. A comprehensive search for all relevant publications in the English literature between December 2006 and March 2022 was conducted for the meta-analysis. Patients undergoing parathyroidectomy between January 2015 and December 2021 were identified from the institutional electronic database for the case series. All studies were analyzed for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 4DCT adenoma localization capabilities. Results: Thirteen retrospective studies that included 379 patients and one case series that included 37 patients were identified and analyzed. A per-patient analysis revealed sensitivity for lateralization to the correct side (n = 181) ranging from 80% to 100% with a fixed effects model of 89% (95%confidence interval [CI]: 82%–93%) and a PPV for lateralization ranging from 63%–95% with a random effects model of 87% (95% CI: 77%–95%). Sensitivity of localization to the correct quadrant (n = 172) ranged from 53% to 100% with a random effects model of 90.4% (95% CI: 76%–99%), and the PPV for localization ranged from 52% to 100% with a random effects model of 82% (95% CI: 73%–89%). Conclusion: 4DCT enhances imaging capabilities of localizing PTAs in cases of discordant or non-localizing US and MIBI scans. Level of Evidence: N/A Laryngoscope, 2023.

Original languageEnglish
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)
  • discordant
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • scans


Dive into the research topics of '4DCT in Discordant Parathyroid Adenoma Scans: Case Series and Meta-Analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this