3D Tissue and Organ Printing—Hope and Reality

Assaf Shapira, Tal Dvir

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging, groundbreaking strategy in tissue engineering, allowing the fabrication of living constructs with an unprecedented degree of complexity and accuracy. While this technique greatly facilitates the structuring of native tissue-like architectures, many challenges still remain to be faced. In this review, the fruits of recent research that demonstrate how advanced bioprinting technologies, together with inspiring creativity, can be used to address these challenges are presented and discussed. Next, the future of the field is discussed, in terms of expected developments, as well as possible directions toward the realization of the vision of fully functional, engineered tissues, and organs. Last, a few hypothetical scenarios for the role 3D bioprinting may play in future tissue engineering are depicted, with an emphasis on its impact on tomorrow's regenerative medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2003751
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number10
StatePublished - 19 May 2021


  • 3D printing
  • bioinks
  • biomaterials
  • cells
  • tissue engineering


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