Aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt signal transduction pathway is involved in a large number of human diseases. β-catenin, the key effector protein of the canonical Wnt pathway, functions in the nucleus with T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) to activate expression of Wnt target genes. Here we show that members of the 14-3-3 protein family bind disheveled-2 (Dvl-2) and glycogen synthase-3β (GSK-3β) to attenuate the interaction between GSK-3β and β-catenin. Importantly, 14-3-3 and β-catenin form "bleb-like" structures and are secreted via extracellular vesicles to induce Wnt signaling activity in target cells. Our data suggest a novel way of transducing the oncogenic Wnt signal in which β-catenin is regulated by 14-3-3ζ through the formation of "oncosomes" that contain both the 14-3-3 and β-catenin proteins.
- Extracellular vesicles
- Wnt signaling