11-item modified frailty index and outcomes after radical cystectomy

Ziv Savin*, Ofer Yossepowitch, Alon Lazarovich, Barak Rosenzwieg, Reut Shashar, Azik Hoffman, Jonathan Gal, Miki Haifler, Ilona Pilosov, Yuval Frifeld, Sagi Arieh Shpitzer, Shay Golan, Roy Mano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: To investigate the association between modified frailty index (mFI) scores and radical cystectomy outcomes. Materials and Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of 292 patients who underwent radical cystectomy between 2015 and 2019. The patients were stratified according to mFI scores (mFI 0–1 vs. mFI ≥2). Baseline characteristics were compared between groups. The primary endpoints were cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoint was the 30-day postoperative complication rate. Results: One group included 164 patients with mFI 0–1 and the other included 128 patients with mFI ≥2. The cohort's median age was 69 years, and median follow-up for survivors was 33 months. Thirty-day major postoperative complication rate was 19%. Ninety patients (31%) died during the study period, 70 of them (24%) from bladder cancer. Older age, male sex, lower kidney function, and diversion to an ileal conduit were significantly more common in the mFI ≥2 group. The postoperative complication rates were comparable between groups, but the CSS and OS were significantly lower in the frailer group (p = 0.007 and p = 0.03, respectively). An mFI score ≥ 2 emerged as an independent risk factor for cancer-specific death (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7, p = 0.03) and overall-mortality (HR = 1.8, p = 0.008). Discussion: High mFI scores are associated with shorter CSS and OS after radical cystectomy. Healthcare providers should be encouraged to calculate frailty preoperatively for judicious patient selection in light of the predicted outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101627
JournalJournal of Geriatric Oncology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Bladder cancer
  • Frailty
  • Modified frailty index
  • Radical cystectomy


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