γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase-dependent mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of γ-Glutamyl derivatives: A model for biochemical targeting of chemotherapeutic agents

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Abstract

Many carcinomas in humans are rich in glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a plasma membrane enzyme that reacts with extracellular substrates. Thus, biochemical targeting of chemotherapeutic agents may be achieved by converting anticancer drugs into their γ-glutamyl derivatives. Chemical conversion of phenylhydrazine (PH) and biochemical modification of daunomycin (DM) into their γ-glutamyl derivatives γ-glutamyl phenylhydrazine (GGPH) and γ-glutamyl DM (GGDM) resulted in the abolishment of their mutagenicity and cytotoxicity, as judged by decreased viability and increased mutant yields in cultures of several Salmonella Ames strains. Commercial γ- glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (GGPNA) was not toxic or mutagenic. Mutagenicity and/or cytotoxicity of these γ-glutamyl derivatives were restored upon reaction with GGT, with concomitant release of PH, and p-nitroaniline (PNA). The GGT-dependent release of DM from GGDM was demonstrated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), spectral analysis, and specific mutagenicity. Mutagenicity and/or cytotoxicity of γ-glutamyl derivatives increased in the presence of glycylglycine, a GGT activator, and decreased in the presence of serine-borate, a GGT inhibitor. GGDM retained considerable DNA binding capacity. Its inability to kilt and mutagenize was due to altered transport properties. The results are compatible with the notion that γ-glutamylation is a feasible method for biochemical targeting of drugs containing a primary amino group to GGT-rich tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-386
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Volume32
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1998

Keywords

  • Cytotoxicity
  • Daunomycin
  • Drug targeting
  • Mutagenicity
  • Phenylhydrazine
  • Salmonell a typhimurium
  • γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase

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